Geochang, a place which has been a habitat for humanity since the prehistoric times, was at times called Jataguk and Geotah and was part of Great Gaya (Daegaya) during the late Gaya Confederation period.
In the early Silla Dynasty period, the place was called Geotah and Geoyeol and in the 16th year of King Gyeongdeok's reign (757), it was named Geochang-gun and Yeomlae and Namnae were renamed Hameumyeon and Yeoseonhyeon respectively and were incorporated them into the gun county.
In 940, the 23th year of King Taejo's reign during the Goryo Dynasty period, Yeoseon-hyeon was renamed to Gameum-hyeon and then again to Gajo-hyeon and in 1018, the 9th year of King Hyeonjong's reign, Hapcheon was elevated to Hapjoo and 12 hyeons including Geochang, Gaso, Gameum, Samga and Yian were incorporated into Hapjoo.
In 1414, the 14th year of King Taejong's reign during the Joseon Dynasty period, Geochang and Geojae of Gaso Province were merged together to be called as Jaechang-hyeon. In 1296, the early years of King Yeonsan's reign, Geochang which was the birthplace of the Yeonsan's consort Shin's first ancestor, was elevated to Geochang-gun but later in 1506 during King Jungjong's reign, due to dethronement of Queen Dangyeong of Geochang Shin Clan, it was demoted to Geochang-hyeon. However, in 1739, the 15th year of King Yeongjo's reign, with the restoration of Queen Dangyeong, Geochang-bu was renamed Geochang-gun and in 1914, Mari, Wicheon and Buksang of Anui-gun and Shinwon-myeon of Samga-gun were incorporated into Geochang-gun.
In 1937, Geochang-myeon was elevated to eup status and Wolcheon-myeon was incorporated into Geochang-eup in 1957 and Jinmok-ri, Chunjeon-ri, Anui-myeon of Hamyang-gun were incorporated into Namsang-myeon. Currently, Geochang is comprised of 1 eup (Geochang-eup) and 11 myeons (Jusang, Woongyang, Gojae, Buksang, Wicheon, Mari, Namsang, Namha, Shinwon, Gajo, Gabuk).