Geochang-gun is located on the northwestern margin of Gyeongsangnam-do and it is the center of the country's 3 major national parks. Its center makes a big inland basin of low land (200m) which borders Jeollabuk-do and Gyeonsangbuk-do at the northwest end of Gyeonsangnam-do. Being the center of the country's 3 major national parks (Mt. Jiri, Mt. Deogyu, Mt. Gaya National Parks), it boasts superb natural environments such as Suseungdae Park, Wolseong Valley and etc.
Geochang-gun, a country situated in the mountainous inland area, features huge daily and annual temperature ranges and frequent rains. The climate data for the year 1993 is as follows.
Geochang-gun has a typical continental climate with hot summers and cold winters but is relatively safe from wind damages because many nearby mountains over 1,000m block northwesterly wind during winter and southeasterly wind during summer. Also, since 66% of annual rainfall occurs in summer from June to September, the region features good environment for plant and animal production. Frost, ice and snow appear most early and last the longest in Gyeonsangnam-do. Forsythia and cherry blossoms appear on March 24 and April 5, respectively, and last for the longest period in Gyeongsangnam-do as well.
In Ma-ri, Sambonggan (1,254), Suryeong-bong (933), Dae-bong (1,300), Ji-bong (1,302), Geo-bong (1,390), Sangyeodeom (1,400), Deokyusanha-bong(1,594), Mt. Muryong (1,492), Satgat-bong (1,400), and Mt. South Deokyu (1,507) of the Mt. Deokyu range which originates from Sobaek Mountains, stretch out to the northwest and Mt. Sudo (1,317), Danji-bong (1,327), Min-bong (1,259), and Duri-bong (1,133) of Gaya Mountain range stand tall to its northeast. These mountain ranges works as borders between Geochang and the two provinces, Jeollabuk-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do.
Mt. Dumu (1,039) to the east of Geochang and Mt. Namsan (1,140), Euisang-bong (1,046), Mt. Bigye (1,126), Mt. Odo (1,134), Mt. Munjae (1,126), and Mt. Osung (889) that stretch out from Mt. Gaya to the northeast of Geochang are the east wall and the southeast wall of the Geochang, bordering Hapcheon-gun. Mt. Wolbong (1,288), Mt. Geumwon (1,353), and Mt. Gibaek (1,331) are the west wall of the Geochang, bordering Hamyang-gun.
Mt. Solbong (645) located at the southern end of Geochang and various peaks of Mt. Maebong (800) that stand are the south wall of the Geochang, bordering Sancheong-gun.
Mt. Deokyu and Mt. Gaya which together form the north wall of Geochang, each spread out a small mountain range along the center and towards the south of Geochang. In Mt. Deogyu, its small mountain range begins at Dae-bong and spreads out towards the southwest along Mt. Hoeum (930), Mt. Seokbu(886), Mt. Ahop (Chuiwuryeong), and Mt. Geonheung (563) and creates small basins such as Buksang-myeon, Wicheon-myeon and Mari-myeon. From Mt. Gaya, another small mountain range begins at Shinseonbong and spreads out towards the southeast along Mt. Yanggak (1,150), Mt. Heedaemi (1,019), Mt. Bulyung (825), and Mt. Geumguibong (827) and creates small basins such as Gabuk-myeon and Gajo-myeon. As these two small mountain ranges curve out to the east and west, the middle region between these mountain ranges is for more basins such as Geoje-myeon, Wungyang-myeon, and Jusang-myeon.
Also, the range of Mt. Gamak (951) stretches out to the south of Geochang where a huge basin of Geochang-eup is at and creates mountainous basins Namha-myeon to the east, Namsang-myeon to the north and Shinwon-myeon to the south.
In the northwest of Geochang, from Janggi-ri, Wicheon-myeon to Mupung, Jeollabuk-do, there is the Mt. Deokyu strata, consisting of metamorphic rocks from the Precambrian times. In the north end of the Geochang-gun, specifically in Gunghang-ri, Goje-myeon, there are granites and gneisses.
To the northeast of the Geochang's Buksang-myeon, generally around Goje-myeon, Ungyang-myeon, Mt. Heedaemi, Chuiwuryeong, Youngseung-ri, and Daedong-ri in Mari-myeon, gneisses are very common. High quality granites can be found around the mountain ridge between the Jusang-myeon and Wicheon-myeon and around the Mt. Geumwon of Sangcheon-ri, Wicheon-myeon. Also, granites or gneisses mixed with biotites are common throughout the county and the sand along small and big streams contains feldspar, quartz, and mica broken off from granites and gneisses and iron sand can also be found in small mountain streams.
In the past, the region was famous for its ceramic industry such as pottery and roof tile because of its iron-rich clay in low hills. Gold mining also thrived in Mt. Sambong, Goje, and Oga-ri, Namha-myeon.